CORONAVIRUS VACCINE COMPARISON

CORONAVIRUS VACCINE COMPARISON

Coronavirus Vaccine Comparison – All of vaccines are typically need years for research and testing before it can be used clinically. But some of situation not required that because of emergency state happen in this pandemic era of Corona virus. The emergency of needing the vaccine as one of the prevention step to stop the spreading of the virus so each country developed their own research to make the best vaccine to help their own country and to help our world so we can fight and stand against the COVID-19 together.

So many vaccines are developed in each country around the world. But not all the vaccines are ready to be used. Researchers are currently testing 67 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and 20 have reached the final stages of testing. At least 89 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals. Some of us maybe didn’t understand about clinical trials, vaccine trials etc. But here some of the information about coronavirus vaccine comparison.1

Also Read COVID-19 and DIABETES

I. The Vaccine Testing Process

An ideal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, to fight the pandemic, should have the following features:2

  1. Elicit long-lasting protective immune responses;
  2. Should be given to everyone regardless of comorbidity or age, immune status, pregnancy/breastfeeding status;
  3. Lack the potential to cause antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) or pulmonary immunopathology;
  4. Should be thermostable in order to enable transportation and storage in developing countries with poor refrigeration facilities;
  5. Be highly immunogenic in the general population including a population with preexisting anti-vector antibodies.

An experimental vaccine is first tested in animals to evaluate its safety and potential to prevent disease. It is then tested in human clinical trials, in three phases:

  • Phase I – in phase I, the vaccine is given to a small number of volunteers to assess its safety, confirm it generates an immune response, and determine the right dosage.
  • Phase II – in phase II, the vaccine is usually given hundreds of volunteers, who are closely monitored for any side effects, to further assess its ability to generate an immune response. In this phase, data are also collected whenever possible on disease outcomes, but usually not in large enough numbers to have a clear picture of the effect of the vaccine on disease. Participants in this phase have the same characteristics (such as age and sex) as the people for whom the vaccine is intended. In this phase, some volunteers receive the vaccine and others do not, which allows comparison to be made and conclusions drawn about the vaccine.
  • Phase III – in phase III, the vaccine is given to thousands of volunteers – some of whom receive the investigational vaccine, and some of whom do not, just like in phase II trials. Data from both groups is carefully compared to see if the vaccine is safe and effective against the disease it is designed to protect against.

Once the results of clinical trials are available, a series of steps is required, including reviews of efficacy, safety, and manufacturing for regulatory and public health policy approvals, before a vaccine may be introduced into a national immunization program.3

Early or Limited Approval : many countries have given emergency authorization from their government based on preliminary evidence that they are safe and effective.1

Approval : regulators review complete trial results and plans for vaccine’s manufacturing, and decide wheter to give it full approval.1

Combined Phase : one way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine phases. Some vaccines are now in Phase ½ trials, for example, which this tracker would count as both Phase 1 and Phase 2.1

Paused or Abandoned : if investigation observe worrying symptoms in volunteers, they can pause the trial. After an investigation, the trial may resume or be abandoned.1

II. CORONAVIRUS VACCINE COMPARISON

Table 1. Lead SARS-Cov-2 candidate vaccines with EUA granted, in phase III trials, or licensed (prior to phase III trials)3.

coronavirus vaccine comparison

φ Storage or transportation temperature. * SU not defined in trial. A amount of 3 µg was proposed for a phase III trial [30]. 1x = 1 immunization. 2x = 2 immunizations. VP = virus particles. NA = not applicable. ** Phase I/II studies used two different doses: 5×1010 and 1×1011 virus particles [31]. *** Phase I/II studies used 1×1011 virus particles/dose [32]. # Two versions are available: a frozen version and a lyophilized version, Gam-COVID-Vac-lyo, to be reconstituted. % Approved for use in Chinese military. € Approved for use in Russia. ∑ EUA granted. $ NAAT = nucleic acid amplification test.

coronavirus vaccine comparison
coronavirus vaccine comparison
NOCOMPANYVACCINE NAME
1.Pfizer(New York) and BIONTECH (German)Comirnaty (also known as tozinameran or BNT162b2
2.Moderna(Boston) and National Institute of HealthmRNA-1237
3.AstraZaneca(Swedish company) and University of Oxford (England)AZD1222 (also known as Covishield in India )
4.Gamaleya Research Institute (Russia)Sputnik V (also known as Gam-Covid-Vac)
5.Sinovac Biotech (China)CoronaVac (formerly PiCoVacc)
6.Johnson & Johnson/JensenAd26.COV2.S
7.NovavaxNVX-CoV2373
Coronavirus vaccine comparison by name.
  1. Pfizer-BioNTech4

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was sent to the FDA for possible Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on Friday, November 20 and authorized on December 11. It is an mRNA vaccine that codes for the virus’s spike protein and is encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle. Once injected, the cells churn out the spike protein, triggering the body’s immune system to recognize the virus. In Phase III trials, it demonstrated 95% efficacy. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine requires storage at about -94 degrees F, which requires specialized freezers.

Type: mRNA

Doses: 2, 21 Days Apart

EUA Date: December 11, 2020

Price: $19.50 per dose for first 100 million doses

Efficacy: About 95%

Status: Approved in Several Countries-Emergency use in U.S, and elsewhere

2. Moderna

On November 16, Moderna issued a preliminary data readout out of its COVID-19 vaccine, suggesting an efficacy rate of 94.5%. It was authorized by the FDA on December 19. Like the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, it is an mRNA vaccine. Unlike that vaccine, however, the Moderna vaccine is stable at 36 to 46 degrees F, about the temperature of a standard home or medical refrigerator, for up to 30 days and can be stored for up to six months at -4 degrees F. It is expected to go to the FDA for consideration for an EUA within days.

Type: mRNA

Doses: 2, 28 Days Apart

EUA Date: December 18, 2020

Price: $25-$37 per dose

Efficacy: About 95%

Status: Approved in Switzerland, Emergency use in U.S., E.U., Elsewhere

3. AstraZeneca-University of Oxford

On November 23, AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford announced high-level results from an interim analysis of their COVID-19 vaccine, AZD1222. The analysis was from the trials in the UK and Brazil and demonstrated efficacy of up to 90%. The vaccine was effective at preventing COVID-19, with no hospitalizations or severe cases in people receiving it. There were a total of 131 COVID-19 positive cases in the interim analysis group. One dosing regimen was given at a half dose and demonstrated 90% efficacy, followed by a full dose at least one month apart. Another dosing regimen demonstrated 62% efficacy when given two full doses at least one month apart. The combined analysis showed average efficacy of 70%. The AstraZeneca vaccine can be stored, transported and handled at normal refrigerated conditions, about 36-46 degrees F for at least six months and administered within existing healthcare settings.

The AstraZeneca and University of Oxford’s vaccine uses technology from an Oxford spinout company, Vaccitech. It deploys a replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus) that causes infections in chimpanzees. It contains the genetic materials of the spike protein. After vaccination, the cells produce the spike protein, stimulating the immune system to attack the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Type: Adenovirus-based

Doses: 2, 28 Days Apart

Likely EUA Date: Authorized in Europe on January 12, 2021, and other countries, but unlikely in the U.S. until spring

Price: $25-$37 per dose

Efficacy: Currently about 70% overall

Status : Emergency use in Britain, E.U., Elsewhere 

4. Russia’s Sputnik V Vaccine

Around November 11, Russia’s National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, which Russia authorized for use in August ahead of even beginning a Phase III trial claimed had an efficacy rate of 92% after the second dose. It was based on a first interim analysis 21 days after the first injection during the ongoing Phase III study. On November 24, the organization claimed 95% efficacy based on new preliminary data. On December 14, 2020, they reported efficacy of 91.4%. It also offered to share one of its two human adenoviral vectors with AstraZeneca to increase the efficacy of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Russia’s Gamaleya research institute appears to be focused on potentially marketing their vaccine worldwide. Even the name of the vaccine has emphasized the idea of a race. The organization has indicated a dose of the vaccine will cost no more than $10, about half the cost of the Pfizer vaccine. The organization has also predicted they could produce 1 billion doses in the next year. At this time, aside from Russia, it will potentially be sold in India, Korea, Brazil, China, and Hungary. The Hungarian government is the only European Union country to express interest to date.

Type: Adenovirus-based

Doses: 2

Likely EUA Date: Not applicable in the U.S.

Price: $10 per dose

Efficacy: 91.4%

Status: Early use in Russia, Emergency use Elsewhere

5. Sinovac Biotech

On January 13, 2021, China-based Sinovac Biotech reported that its COVID-19 vaccine had a 50.38% efficacy in late-stage clinical trials in Brazil. The company’s clinical trials are demonstrating dramatically varying efficacy rates. In Indonesia, a local trial demonstrated an efficacy rate of 65%, but the trial had only 1,620 participants. Turkey reported an efficacy rate of 91.25% in December 2020. Another trial in Brazil run by a local partner, Butantan Institute, reported last week a 78% efficacy rate in mild cases while 100% against severe and moderate infections. It is an inactivated vaccine that uses inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses.

Type: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus

Doses: 2

Likely EUA Date: Not applicable in the U.S.

Price: $13,6 (Indonesia)5

Efficacy: 50.38% to 91.25%, depending on the clinical trial

Status: Approved in China, Emergency use Elsewhere

6. Johnson & Johnson

Johnson & Johnson announced on November 15 that it initiated a second global Phase III trial of its Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. They expect to enroll up to 60,000 volunteers worldwide.

Whereas all of the other three vaccine candidates require two doses about 28 days apart, the J&J vaccine only requires a single dose. Interim results from its Phase I/IIa trial demonstrated a single dose of the vaccine induced a robust immune response and was generally well-tolerated. The ENSEMBLE 2 study evaluated a two-dose regimen as well.

The vaccine uses the company’s AdVac technology platform, which it used to develop its approved Ebola vaccine and its Zika, RSV and HIV investigational vaccine candidates. It revolves around the use of an inactivated common cold virus, similar to what the AstraZeneca-University of Oxford program utilizes.

On February 4, Johnson & Johnson announced that it has filled for an emergency use authorization in the U.S. The FDA has scheduled a meeting of the committee that makes vaccine recommendations on February 26, and a decision could follow shortly afterward.  

Type: Adenovirus-based

Doses: 1

Likely EUA Date: Possibly March or April 2021

Price: $10 per dose

Efficacy: 72% in the U.S., 66% overall, 85% for preventing severe disease 

Status: Phase 3

7. NOVAVAX

Maryland-based Novavax makes vaccines by sticking proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve taken on a number of different diseases this way; their flu vaccine finished Phase 3 clinical trials last March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations invested $384 million to support research on the vaccine. In July the U.S. government awarded Novavax another $1.6 billion to support the vaccine’s clinical trials and manufacturing.

On January 28, 2021, Novavax announced that its COVID-19 vaccine, NVX-CoV2373, hit the primary endpoint with a vaccine efficacy of 89.3% in its Phase III trial in the UK. The vaccine is a protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate. It also has data from the South Africa Phase IIb trial and several Phase I, II and III trials. It has demonstrated high clinical efficacy against the UK and South Africa variants as well.

The vaccine contains a full-length, prefusion spike protein made using the company’s recombinant nanoparticle technology and its proprietary saponin-based Matrix-M adjuvant. It is stable at 2 to 8 degrees C and shipped in a ready-to-use liquid formulation.

Type: Protein-based vaccine

Doses: 2

Likely EUA Date: Possibly in March or February 2021 in the UK; possibly Q1 2021 or later in the U.S.

Price: $16 in the US

Efficacy: 89.3%

That’s it. The article about Coronavirus Vaccine Comparison. If you like to see another article, please follow the link below.

Also Read Delaying second dose of coronavirus vaccines is ‘risky gamble’: according to experts

Coronavirus Vaccine Comparison

REFFERENCES

  1. Carl Zimmer, Jonathan Corum, Sui-Lee Wee. Coronavirus Vaccine Comparison Tracker.2 February 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html?auth=link-dismiss-google1tap
  2. Gregory A.Poland, MD; Inna G. Ovsyannikova, PhD; Stephen N.Crooke. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development: Current Status. 2020. Mayo Clinic. Access: 6 February 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.07.021
  3. WHO. Vaccines and Immunization: What is vaccination?. Access: 4 February 2021.  https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/vaccines-and-immunization-what-is-vaccination?adgroupsurvey={adgroupsurvey}&gclid=CjwKCAiA9vOABhBfEiwATCi7GA4Q0gma7eld7lLLdXFkF64O_a9BqrMusUos10__fOldtUZX9fbpfhoCpxAQAvD_BwE)
  4. Mark Terry. UPDATED Comparing COVID-19 Vaccines: Timelines, Types and Prices. Access: 4 February 2021. https://www.biospace.com/article/comparing-covid-19-vaccines-pfizer-biontech-moderna-astrazeneca-oxford-j-and-j-russia-s-sputnik-v/
  5. Milton Lum, Dr. Covid-19 Vaccine Prices. Code Blue, Health is Human Right. December 2020. Access : https://codeblue.galencentre.org/2020/12/25/covid-19-vaccine-prices/ 16 February 2021
What are the differences of these various COVID-19 vaccines?

What are the differences of these various COVID-19 vaccines?

Sinovac

Various COVID 19 vaccines in Beijing-based biopharmaceutical company Sinovac is behind the CoronaVac, an inactivated vaccine.

It works by using killed viral particles to expose the body’s immune system to the virus without risking a serious disease response.

By comparison the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines being developed in the West are mRNA vaccines. This means part of the coronavirus’ genetic code is injected into the body, triggering the body to begin making viral proteins, but not the whole virus, which is enough to train the immune system to attack.

On paper, one of Sinovac’s main advantages is that it can be stored in a standard refrigerator at 2-8 degrees Celsius, like the Oxford vaccine, which is made from a genetically engineered virus that causes the common cold in chimpanzees.1

While the three COVID-19 vaccines – from Pfizer/BioNtech, Moderna and Oxford/AstraZeneca – look set to be the most common ones for Europeans.

While they all have the same goal, there are substantial differences between the jabs, from their composition and reported effectiveness, to their price and ease of conservation and distribution.

It means that both Sinovac and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine are a lot more useful to developing countries that might not be able to store large amounts of vaccine at such low temperatures.

Pfizer/BioNtech and Moderna

The Pfizer vaccine, like the Moderna one, use innovative messenger RNA technology. In short, this technology teaches our cells how to produce a protein, which is what makes the immune system react.

It is claimed their efficiency in successfully fighting COVID-19, at up to 95%, is higher than that of AstraZeneca.

Both, however, are more expensive.

The big drawback of Pfizer’s jab is that it needs to be stored in the extreme cold, at temperatures as low as -70C to -80C. Moderna’s can remain stable for 30 days at a temperature of between 2C and 8C, but for longer periods it will have to be frozen at -20C.

Oxford/AstraZeneca

Compared to Pfizer and Moderna, AstraZeneca’s jab uses a more traditional vaccine technique, using an attenuated version of the virus that causes the common cold in chimpanzees.

This virus has been genetically altered with a gene for a coronavirus protein to provoke the body’s immune reaction.

Its efficiency rate is lower at around 70%. But, under certain conditions, this can be as high as 90%.

But it is a lot cheaper and easier to store than Pfizer’s vaccine. The AstraZeneca vaccine can survive in a standard refrigerator for up to six months, whereas the Pfizer one needs temperatures of up to -80℃.2

That’s all for the various covid 19 vaccines hope this article help you!

Also Read Indonesia COVID vaccination to start Wednesday using Sinovac drug

RESOURCE:

  1. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-55212787
  2. Carmen Menéndez  & Lucía Riera. 
  3. https://www.euronews.com/2020/12/31/what-are-the-differences-between-the-three-main-covid-19-vaccines