What stoma really is? What it’s really look like? And why did I have to get that?
Maybe you kind of bit confusing about the term of stoma or maybe this is your first time hearing it. Here some information I would love to share with you about that.
The term of “stoma” or “ostomy” comes from the Greek and means “mouth”. In medicine, stoma/ostomy refers to surgically created opening of a hollow organ on the surface of the body to enable excretion of waste products.
A stoma is a surgically created opening from an area inside the body to the outside. It looks like a small, pinkish, circular piece of flesh that is seen to your body.
Oh, no no wait? What ? there is a hole in my body? My tummy? Does it hurt ?
Actually, stoma-form through surgical by a surgeon, you will be under anesthesia and your stoma has no nerve endings so you should feel no pain from it.
Ostomy or stoma-forming surgery itself could be permanent or temporary, depending on the reason of the surgery.
Why Do I Need Stoma ?
A Stoma-forming surgery may be undertaken for a number of reasons, such as to eradicate a disease or improve the patient’s quality of life. But what kind of diseases that really need stoma surgery ?
- Cancer of the bowel system, Anal cancer, Vaginal Cancer, or Cervical cancer. Cancers are most common disease leading to stoma surgery.
- An injury to the small or large intestine
- Inflammatory bowel disease—long lasting disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, that cause irritation or sores in the GI tract
- Obstruction—a blockage in the bowel that prevents the flow of fluids or solids
- Diverticulitis—a condition that occurs when small pouches in the colon called diverticula become inflamed, or irritated and swollen, and infected.
- Fecal Incontinence
- Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
- Congenital Abnormalities : Hirschsprung’s Disease, Spina Bifida, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
A stoma-forming surgery can be done by some techniques and types, due to where the main location of the diseases are held.
Small bowel ostomies (ileostomies) can be distinguished from large-bowel ostomies (colostomies), end ostomies from loop ostomies. Ileostomy are preferentially created in the right tummy, colostomies mostly in the left tummy.
A colostomy is a stoma created from a part of the colon. For this surgery, the surgeon brings the colon through the abdominal wall and makes a stoma. A colostomy may be temporary or permanent depend on what is the underlying diseases are.
In end (terminal) ostomies, the bowel is divided and the proximal stump is brought out (figure 2). In the case of a loop ostomy, the intestine is not transected; rather the anterior wall is opened to create the ostomy (figure 3)
The location of the colostomy or ileostomy will affect the type and consistency of stool (poop). Your colon normally absorbs water so when some or all of the colon is removed or bypassed, water may not be absorbed from stool as usual. For example, the stool from an ileostomy is mostly liquid because it doesn’t travel through the colon, which would normally remove most of the water. If you have a descending or sigmoid colostomy, your stool will be formed and solid as usual.
- Ostomy surgery of the bowel : https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/ostomy-surgery-bowel#stoma
- Peter C. Ambe, Nadja Rebecca Kurz, Claudia Nitschke, Siad F.Odeh; 2018; Intestinal Ostomy: Classification, Indications, Ostomy Care and Complication Management. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.
- National Cancer Institute Dictionary : https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/stoma
- Types and Indications of Colostomy and Determinants of Outcomes of Patients After Surgery : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864340/
- Colostomy and Ileostomy : https://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/tests-and-procedures/colostomy-and-ileostomy/?region=on