VITAMIN C AND AGING

VITAMIN C AND AGING

Vitamin C And Aging – Aging? Well, it’s not me, I’m still young. But the fact is aging can come to everyone at any time because aging does not always depend on how old you are, but there are several conditions that can cause premature aging.

This time, we want to talk about skin aging. Most people don’t recognize the signs of aging until their 30s or 40s and some people never bother with aging their skin before someone says “ah, why do you look older this time? You are younger than me”. When you know you are 29 but everyone tells you that your face looks older than your age, than the time when you started taking care of your skin and changing your daily routine for your skin.

Also Read SUNRAYS MAKES SKIN PROBLEMS

What is Skin Aging?

Kirkwood and Austad (2000) said, aging is usually defined as a progressive loss of function accompanied by decreased fertility and increased mortality advancing age. So, the theory says it is a loss of function and progressive aging can affect all systems in our body. But, what about aging skin? Should I worry about skin aging? I’m only in my 30’s.
Even though we are young, research says that we can also experience skin aging. This Study says “premature skin aging”. What is that???? Premature? So skin aging will come to you like no one would predict right?

Premature skin aging caused by long-term exposure to ultraviolet irradiation from sunlight. Long-term sun exposure contains more UVB ultraviolet and UVA. UVA irradiation activates ROS (are free radicals, an unstable type of molecule that contains oxygen and which readily reacts with other molecules in cells. Constructed from oxygen species reactions in cells can cause damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins and can lead to cell death) signals from activating the ROS system cause DNA damage.

Skin Aging and Its Characteristics

Skin aging is a complex biological process consisting of two components, intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic aging is also called true aging which is an inevitable change that is caused by the passage of time alone and is manifested mainly by physiological changes with subtle consequences but undoubtedly essential for healthy and healthy skin and is largely genetically determined. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental exposure, especially to UV rays, and the more commonly called shooting. The intrinsic rate of skin aging in any individual can be affected dramatically by personal and environmental factors, particularly the amount of exposure to ultraviolet rays.

Photodamage, which significantly speeds up visible aging of the skin, also greatly increases the risk of skin cancer. Intrinsic aging is an inevitable physiological process that results in thin, dry skin, fine wrinkles and gradual dermal atrophy, while extrinsic aging is provided by external environmental factors such as air pollution, smoking, poor nutrition, loss of elasticity, and the appearance of aging skin.

Vitamin C and Aging Skin

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is the most abundant antioxidant in human skin, forming part of a group of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant complexes that coexist to protect the skin from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Vitamin C is water-soluble, functions in the chest compartment of cells. When the skin is exposed to UV rays, ROS such as superoxide ions, peroxide and singlet oxygen are generated. Vitamin C protects the skin from oxidative stress by sequentially donating electrons to neutralize free radicals. The oxidized forms of vitamin C are relatively non-reactive. Furthermore, they can be converted back to Vitamin C by the enzyme dehydro acid acid reductase in the presence of glutathione. Exposure to UV rays can reduce the availability of Vitamin C in the skin.

Antioxidants are required to neutralize the ROS formed due to UV exposure. It is important to note that Vit C is equally effective against UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) . Repeated small doses of UVA penetrate 30-40 times deeper into the dermis as it fights UVB, which mostly affects the epidermis. UVA mutates and destroys collagen, skin elastin, proteoglycans (proteoglycans support hydration of normal skin extracellular matrix, providing resilience, viscoelasticity, and a soft environment conducive to cellular function and development ) and other skin cellular structures. Thus, UVA causes UVB skin to cause sunburn, ROS, epidermal mutations (mutations that occur in the outer layer of the skin) and skin cancer. Sunscreen when applied properly prevents UV-induced erythema (is a type of skin rash caused by injured or inflamed blood capillaries) and other serious skin problems. However, sunscreen only blocks 55% of the free radicals generated by UV exposure. Photoageing (premature aging) can be prevented by preventing UV-induced erythmias, sunburn cell formation and inducing collagen repair. To optimize UV ​​protection, it is important to use sunscreens in combination with topical antioxidants. Vit.C does not absorb UV rays but provides a UV protective effect by neutralizing free radicals, while this effect is not seen with sunscreens. Under laboratory conditions, it has been shown that application of topical Vit 10% .C showed a statistical reduction of UVB-induced erythema by 52% and sunburn cell formation by 40-60% .

Vitamin C also directly activates the transcription of collagen synthesis and stabilizes procollagen mRNA, thereby regulating collagen synthesis. Clinical studies have shown that topical use of Vit.C increases collagen production in young as well as aging human skin. Some studies also suggest Vitamin C as a depigmenting agent, but vitamin C is often combined with other depigmenting agents such as soy and liquor for better depigmenting effects. Vitamin C interacts with copper ions at the tyrosinase-active site and inhibits the action of the tyrosinase enzyme, thereby reducing melanin formation.

How Can You Find Vitamin C ?

Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, such as oranges, lemons and grapefruit, amla, tomatoes, sprouted grains and green leafy vegetables. For lemons, lemons contain 77mg of vitamin C per 100 grams, with one medium lemon providing 92% of the DV. For adults, the recommended daily amount of vitamin C is 65 to 90 milligrams (mg) daily and the upper limit is 2,000 mg daily. Be careful, too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful, taking vitamin C supplements can cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach cramps, headaches and insomnia.13 You can also get vitamin C injections into your veins. But keep in mind, however, that you have to go to your doctor to do this.

REFERENCES

  1. Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Steven N. Austad. Why do we age. NATURE. 2000. VOL 408. DOI: 10.1038/35041682 · Source: PubMed
  2. Uraiwan Panich, Gunya Sittihumcharee, Natwarath Rathviboon, Siwanon Jirawatnotai. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Epidermal Stem Cell Damage Mediated Skin Aging. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Stem Cells International Volume 2016, Article ID 7370642, 14 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7370642
  3. Assaf H., Adly M.A., Hussein M.R. (2010) Aging and Intrinsic Aging: Pathogenesis and Manifestations. In: Farage M.A., Miller K.W., Maibach H.I. (eds) Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89656-2_13
  4. Shoubing Zhang, Enkui Duan. Fighting against Skin Aging: The Way from Bench to Bedside. SAGE. Cell Transplantation 2018, Vol. 27(5) 729–738 ª The Author(s) 2018 Reprints and permission: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0963689717725755 journals.sagepub.com/home/cll
  5. Wikipedia. Vitamin C. Access : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C March 6 2021
  6. Pumori Saokar Telang. Vitamin C in Dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2013 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 143–146. doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.110593
  7. Traikovich SS. Use of Topical Ascorbic acid and its effects on Photo damaged skin topography. Arch Otorhinol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:1091–8
  8. Matsuda S, Shibayama H, Hisama M, Ohtsuki M, Iwaki M. Inhibitory effects of novel ascorbic derivative VCP-IS-2Na on melanogenesis. Chem Pharm Bull. 2008;56:292–7.
  9. Margaret Mary Smith, James Melrose. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2015 Mar 1; 4(3): 152–173. doi: 10.1089/wound.2013.0464
  10. Farris PK. Cosmetical Vitamins: Vitamin C. In: Draelos ZD, Dover JS, Alam M, editors. Cosmeceuticals. Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology. 2nd ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. pp. 51–6.
  11. Burke KE. Interaction of Vit C and E as better Cosmeseuticals. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20:314
  12. Draelos ZD. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20:308
  13. Katherine Zeratsky, RD, LD. Is it possible to take too much vitamin C?. Acces : https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/vitamin-c/faq-20058030

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